Summary of the most popular drug packaging in Chin

2022-08-06
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A review of drug packaging in China (1)

drugs are a special commodity, and their efficacy and quality are directly related to human health and safety. The material and structure of drug packaging not only ensure the efficacy, but also play a key role in ensuring the reliability and convenience of drug use. It is an important indicator for the evaluation of drug quality

I. the development of drug packaging in China

drug packaging in China has experienced three stages. In the 1950s and 1960s, brown glass bottles, straw cartons and straight neck ampoules constituted the packaging characteristics of that era. The drug packaging is bulky, but the principle is practical. The type is monotonous. The tablets are mostly made of dark brown glass bottles (equipped with corks and iron caps). The color of the bottle sticker design is complex. The printing is mainly typesetting. Ink manuscripts are generally hand drawn, and small instructions are written with a duck mouth pen, which is neat. Glass market is prosperous. Glass bottles are packed in straw board cartons and manual paste lining spacers. If the weight is more than 200g, corrugated paper partitions (teeth) are used for direct packing, which is heavy and inconvenient for transportation. The water needle is packed in a single package, mainly 1ml, 2ml and 5ml. The glucose for drip is filled in 20mkl straight neck ampoules, and the outer box is a folding carton. Cartons are pasted with boxes. The printing of box stickers is rough, and the difference between boxes is large. The powder packaging is simple, the powder is directly packed in thin paper folded bags, and the external use of small writing paper bags is monotonous. The second stage is from 1970s to early 1980s. This stage is in a state of adjustment and wandering. At this time, it was greatly influenced by the "Cultural Revolution", especially from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, there was no registered trademark on the drug packaging, and it was only after a long period of pain that it slowly moved towards the right implementation. Since the 1980s, it has been the third stage. After years of running in, the pharmaceutical packaging industry has developed healthily. In the early 1980s, after the restoration of the registered trademark, the pharmaceutical packaging has been improved. In terms of packaging form, in addition to tablets, powders, pills, creams, water, needles and powders, we have also developed suppositories, oral liquids, aerosols, capsules, patches, chewing agents and other dosage forms. In terms of materials, aluminum plastic, paper plastic, laser anti-counterfeiting and other composite materials are gradually popularized

II. Two main materials for drug packaging

plastic packaging materials include plastic, glass, composite film, wax and pottery. Porcelain, metal, synthetic paper, non-woven synthetic paper, non-woven fabric, etc. are automatically measured from the beginning. Due to the development of polymer materials, plastic packaging materials occupy a more and more important position in medical packaging materials, followed by glass

1. Plastic packaging

in recent years, in addition to the traditional polyester (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and other packaging materials used in pharmaceutical packaging, various new materials such as aluminum-plastic, paper-plastic and other composite materials are also widely used in pharmaceutical packaging, effectively improving the quality and grade of pharmaceutical packaging, showing a broad development prospect of plastics

(1) ethylene terephthalate (PET). There are many kinds of pet used in pharmaceutical packaging. Because of its high strength, good transparency, excellent dimensional stability and good air tightness, pet is often used to replace glass containers and metal containers for the packaging of solid preparations such as tablets and capsules; BOPET is formed from pet with intrinsic viscosity of 0.57 ~ 0.64cm3/g after biaxial stretching, which is commonly used for packaging Chinese herbal medicine pieces; In addition, due to its high odor and heat resistance, it can be used as a barrier layer in the multi-layer composite film to ensure that the drug will not deteriorate within the validity period and will not be cracked by light irradiation, such as pet/pe composite film. But the biggest disadvantage of pet is that it can not withstand high-temperature steam disinfection

(2) polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). PVDC has good transparency, excellent printability and heat sealing performance. Its biggest feature is that it has good barrier to oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide in the air and excellent moisture resistance. However, due to its high price, it is mainly made into composite films with PE, PP, etc. in pharmaceutical packaging as packaging bags for granules and powders

(3) polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate (we hope to draw attention to pen with the low cost and low carbon economy made in China). Pen has excellent mechanical properties, strong ultraviolet radiation resistance, good transparency and barrier, glass transition temperature as high as 121 ℃, slow crystallization speed, and is easy to make transparent thick wall heat-resistant bottles. The price of pen is relatively high. In order to reduce the cost, pen and pet are usually blended to form pen/pet blends, which have the same cost as glass and have the same air tightness and shelf life as glass bottles. Pen has strong ultraviolet radiation resistance, so that the composition of drugs will not change due to light exposure. It is commonly used for hot packaging of oral liquid, syrup, etc. at present, pen is the only rigid packaging material that can replace glass containers and can be digested and disinfected by industrial methods

(4) polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC has good transparency, high strength, excellent heat sealing and printability. In pharmaceutical packaging, rigid PVC is mainly used to make turnover boxes and bottles; Soft PVC is mainly used to make films, bags, etc. In recent years, with the improvement of drug packaging quality and grade, it has opened up a new application space for semi-rigid PVC sheets. At present, a large number of PVC sheets are used as blister materials for aluminum-plastic blister packaging of tablets and capsules

(5) polypropylene (PP). PP is a kind of plastic with very low density. The unfilled or reinforced density is only 0.90 ~ 0.91g/cm sup 3/sup. It is usually crystalline with a melting point of 185-170 ℃, so it has high heat resistance and can be cooked in boiling water. It is non-toxic and is a weak polar polymer, so its thermal adhesion and printability are poor. Generally, OPP is made into opp/pe and opp/al/pe composite films for the purpose of improving transparency or barrier. It is an ideal packaging material for printing composite films such as water pills and granules

other plastics that can be used in pharmaceutical packaging include polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (e/vac), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate (PC), cellulose acetate, polyamide (PA), polyurethane (PUR), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), ABS and K-Resin. Most of its uses are to give full play to the advantages of these plastics, such as moisture-proof, shading, gas resistance, good printability, etc. with the development of material science and human concern for health, drug packaging will develop towards a safer, hard, comprehensive and pollution-free direction. Plastics will become the fastest-growing material in pharmaceutical packaging with its excellent comprehensive performance and reasonable price

2. Glass packaging

pharmaceutical glass is a major branch of the pharmaceutical packaging industry and an important part of the entire pharmaceutical industry. The main medicinal glass packaging is as follows:

(1) antibiotic powder injection bottle. Antibiotic powder injection bottles are mainly divided into two types: molded and controlled. Molded antibiotic bottles are widely used in the packaging of antibiotic powder injections, and the dosage is about 70% of the total amount of antibiotic powder injections. At present, there are 10 moulded antibiotic bottle manufacturers in China, with an annual output of about 10billion bottles. The annual output of most enterprises is less than 500million bottles. There is still a big gap between the level of technical equipment and product quality and the advanced level of similar international products. North China Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. is the largest user of controlled antibiotic bottles, with an annual consumption of about 1.2 billion. The product has developed rapidly in recent years, and has gradually replaced ampoules for freeze-drying agents, and partially replaced molded bottles. Improving glass material, increasing bottle strength, improving the stability of specification and size, appearance quality and packaging quality, and developing controlled bottles with low expansion coefficient and printing will become the development direction in the future. However, at present, molded bottles have been the dominant position, and more than 70% of antibiotic powder injections are still packaged in molded bottles

(2) water injection packaging. The packaging of water injection mainly adopts glass ampoules. At present, the annual demand of the domestic market is 29billion pieces, and there are many domestic manufacturers. The pharmaceutical industry began to force the elimination of non folding ampoules in 1990, but the problem of easy folding ampoules is still prominent. The purpose of carrying out the easy break ampoule is to make the ampoule easy to break, so as to avoid the glass particles formed by filing into the liquid medicine when the ampoule is used. Studies have shown that glass particles will have serious consequences if they enter the human body with the liquid medicine. In addition, the victims include medical staff. When the hemispherical punch of the pendulum type film impact tester is impacted at a constant speed and passes through the plastic film, the ampoule is not easy to break and is cut frequently, which brings great hidden dangers and threats to the drug safety of patients and the use of medical staff. According to the market survey and analysis, it is predicted that China's pharmaceutical injections will increase at an annual rate of 5%, and the output will reach 37.5 billion tubes in 2010. 10% ~ 15% of the injections need ampoules that are resistant to strong acid, strong alkali and light, and 5% of the ampoules need high-quality printing

(3) infusion bottle. At present, the drug packaging containing infusion agents is still mainly glass infusion bottles. The product is widely used because of its good air tightness, cleanness and transparency, and not easy to deteriorate. However, the reuse of glass infusion bottles has become a major problem that threatens people's safe medication. At present, there is a big gap between the manufacturing quality level of domestic infusion bottles and that of similar international products. The gap mainly lies in the lightweight, cleanliness, packaging, appearance transparency and uniformity of bottles

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